The Harlem Renaissance

Night club in Harlem, for African-Americans entertainers.
  • The Harlem Renaissance was the time when the African-American cultural revolution settle in Harlem, New York. 
  • Between 1910 and 1920, hundreds of African-Americans moved from the South to the North, this was a movement known as the Great Migration.
  • This movement first called the New Negro Movement or New Negro Renaissance, was a artistic and literary movement to celebrate the African-American culture.
  • The goals of the Harlem Renaissance were to reform the African-American community in areas such as literature, music, art, and politics.
  • Mostly, the Harlem Renaissance was a literary movement, that was led by middle-class and well educated African-Americans.
  • African-American performers made an impact on the movement in 1921 when Shuffle Along was launched, a black musical comedy.
  • The term New Negro movement was founded by Hubert Harrison. But was made popular by Alain Locke.
  • New Negro Movement affected the lives of African-Americans, making a great significance. Despite of the significanse on the term "New Negro" (many people considered it optimistic).
  • It is to be said that the African-American music, entertainment, art, etc. became more popular around, until the white audience became interest by it, and started to buy it.

Paint by Palmer Hayden, watercolor on paper.
Supporters of Marcus Garvey in Harlem.
  • African-Americans became a much more stronger characters. Their culture was heard and it made a great impact on history, they showed a complete different side of the African-American people.
  • The Harlem Renaissance represented a part of great cultural and social changes.
  • This time period was characterized by new ideas, changing values, and personal freedom.
  • Most of the social changes were lasting.


The New Negro: An Interpretation, Alain Locke, Ayer Co. Pub., Reprint edition, 1968

Harlem Renaissance, Nathan Irving Huggins, Oxford University Press, 1972

From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans, John Hope Franklin, Author, Alfred A. Moss, Jr., Author, Knopf, 8 Sub edition, 2000

Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Developments (The History of Jazz), by Gunther Schuller, Oxford University Press, USA, 1968

Jazz in Black and White: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Jazz Community, Charlie Gerard, Praeger Publishers, 1998

Jazz: The First Century, John Edward Hasse, Editor, Ted Lathrop, Author, William Morrow, 1 edition, 2000

Andrews, William L.; Foster, Frances S.; Harris, Trudier eds. 
The Concise Oxford Companion To African American Literature. New York: Oxford Press, 2001

Ostrom, Hans and J. David Macey, eds. 
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Literature. 5 volumes. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Soto, Michael, ed. 
Teaching The Harlem Renaissance. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.

Tracy, Steven C. 
Langston Hughes and the Blues. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

Created by: Valentina Franco and Gabriela Gibaja. 02/06/2011